2019-05-20 08:17:41 投稿作者:admin 围观人数:244 评论人数:0次


堪萨斯州惠灵顿市一个宅院里的标语。在美国,一些家长和学生对立巅峰学习推出的根据网络的教育课程。CHRISTOPHER SMITH FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

WELLINGTON, Kan。 — The seed of rebellion was planted in classrooms。 It grew in kitchens and living rooms, in conversations between students and their parents。


It culminated when Collin Winter, 14, an eighth grader in McPherson, Kan。, joined a classroom walkout in January。 In the nearby town of Wellington, high schoolers staged a sit-in。 Their parents organized in living rooms, at churches and in the back of machine repair shops。 They showed up en masse to school board meetings。 In neighborhoods with no political yard signs, homemade signs with dark red slash marks suddenly popped up。

当堪萨斯州麦克弗森市一名14岁的八年级学生科林温特(Collin Winter)一月参加一场罢课运动时,它达到了高峰。在这个威灵顿邻近的小镇,高中生举行了静坐示威。他们的爸爸妈妈在客厅、教堂和机修行的里屋安排起来,团体到会了校园的董事会。这一带的民居宅院里看不到政治标语,现在却忽然开端呈现画着深赤色斜线的手制标语。

Silicon Valley had come to small-town Kansas schools — and it was not going well。


“I want to just take my Chromebook back and tell them I’m not doing it anymore,” said Kallee Forslund, 16, a 10th grader in Wellington。

“我只想把我的Chromebook拿回来,然后通知他们我再也不干了,”16岁的凯莉福斯隆德(Kallee Forslund)说。她是威灵顿一名十年级的学生。

Eight months earlier, public schools near Wichita had rolled out a web-based platform and curriculum from Summit Learning。 The Silicon尿黄 Valley-based program promotes an educational approach called “personalized learning,” which uses online tools to customize education。 The platform that Summit provides was developed by Facebook engineers。 It is funded by Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, and his wife, Priscilla Chan, a pediatrician。

八个月前,威奇托邻近的公立校园推出了来自“巅峰学习”(Summ青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事it Learning)的一个根据网络的渠道和课程方案。这个总部在硅谷的项目推行一种名为“个性化学习”的教育办法,用在线东西来定制教育。巅峰供给的这个渠道由Facebook的工程师开发,其资金来自马克扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和他的妻子、儿科医师普莉希拉陈(Priscilla Chan)。

Many families in the Kansas towns, which have grappled with underfunded public schools and deteriorating test scores, initially embraced the change。 Under Summit’s program青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事, students spend much of the day on their laptops and go online for lesson plans a刘桂娟最新消息nd quizzes, which they complete at their own pace。 Teachers assist students with the work, hold mentoring sessions and lead special projects。 The system is free to schools。 The laptops are typically bought separately。


Then, students started coming home with headaches and hand cramps。 Some said they felt more anxious。 One child began having a recurrence of seizures。 Another asked to bring her dad’s hunting earmuffs to class to block out classmates because work was now done largely alone。


“We’re allowing the computers to teach and the kids all looked like zombies,” said Tyson Koenig, a factory supervisor in McPherson, who visited his son’s fourth-grade class。 In Octob迅疾猎手er, he pulled the 10-year-old out of the school。

“咱们在让电脑来教课,孩子们全都跟僵尸相同,”麦克弗森一家工厂的主管泰森科尼格(Tyson Koenig)说。他去看了儿子的四年级讲堂状况。上一年十月,他带着自己10岁的小孩离开了校园。

出于对巅峰学习项目的忧虑,威灵顿居民汤姆亨宁让儿子退出了公立校园。 CHRISTOPHER SMITH FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

In a school district survey of McPherson middle school parents released this month, 77 percent of respondents said they preferred their child not be in a classroom that uses Summit。 More than 80 percent said their children had expressed concerns about the platform。


“Change rarely comes without some bumps in the road,” said Gordon Mohn, McPherson’s superintendent of schools。 He added, “Students are becoming self-directed learners and are demonstrating greater ownership of their le青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事arning activities。”

“改动很少是不碰几个钉子的,”麦克弗森的教育局长戈登莫恩(Gordon Mohn)说。他弥补道,“学生们正在成为自主学习者,并对自己的学习活动展现出更大的自主权。”

John Buckendorf, Wellington High School’s principal, said the “vast majority of our parents are happy with the pro青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事gram。”

威灵顿中学的校长约翰邦肯多夫(John Buckendorf)表明,“咱们绝大多数的家长对这个项目感到满意。”

The resistance in Kansas is part of mounting nationwide opposition to Summit, which began trials of its system in public schools four years ago and is now in around 380 schools and used by 74,000 students。 In Brooklyn, high school students walked ou特色小吃t in November after their school started using Summit’s platform。 In Indiana, Pa。, after a survey by Indiana University of Pennsylvania found 70 percent of students wanted Summit dropped or made optional, the school board scaled it back and then voted this month to terminate it。 And in Cheshire, Conn。, the program was cut after protests in 2017。

全国范围内有越来越多的人对立巅峰,堪萨斯州的抵抗仅仅其间之一。巅峰于四年前开端在公立校园试用其体系,现在被大约380所校园运用,触及7.4万名学生。上一年11月,一些布鲁克林的高中运用巅峰渠道后,学生们举行了罢课。在宾夕法尼亚的印第安纳,宾夕法尼亚印第安纳大学(Indiana University of Pennsylvania)一项查询发现,70%的学生期望吊销巅峰,或让其成为可选项目,随后校园董事会缩减了其规划,并于本月投票决议是否停止该项目。在康涅狄格州的柴郡,该项目在2017年遭对立后被吊销。

“When there are frustrating situations, generally kids get over them, parents get over them, and they all move on,” said Mary Burnham, who has two grandchildren in Cheshire’s school district and started a petition to end Summit’s use。 “Nobody got over this。”

“呈现令人困扰的状况时,孩子们一般会习惯,爸爸妈妈也会习惯,然后他们就不再纠结了,”有两个孙辈在柴郡校园就读的玛丽伯纳姆(Mary Burnham)说,她发起了一项间断运用巅峰的示威。“可是没有人习惯这个。”

Silicon Valley has tried to remake American education in its own image for years, even as many in tech eschew gadgets and software at home and flood into tech-free schools。 Summit has been part of the leading edge of the movement, but the rebellion raises questions about a heavy reliance on tech in public schools。


For years, education experts have debated the merits of self-directed, online learning versus traditional teacher-led classrooms。 Proponents argue that programs like Summit provide children, especially those in underserved towns, access to high-quality curriculums and teachers。 Skeptics worry about screen time and argue that students miss out on important interpersonal lessons。


这一带的民居宅院里看不到政治标语,忽然间冒出了关于巅峰学习的克己标牌。 CHRISTOPHER SMITH FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

John Pane, a senior scie紫菜包饭ntist at the RAND Corporation who has studied programs that use digital tools to customize learning, said the field remains in its infancy。 “There has n5730图书馆ot been enough research,” he said。

兰德公司(RAND Corporation)的资深科学家约翰潘(John Pane)研讨过运用数字东西定制学习的项目。他说,这个范畴仍处于起步阶段。“没有满意的研讨,”他说。

Diane Tavenner, a former teacher and Summit’s chief executive, founded a series of public charter schools starting in 2003 called Summit Public Schools and began developing software to use in the classrooms so that students could “unlock the power within themselves。” The resulting program, Summit Learning, is spinning out into a new nonprofit called T.L.P。 Education。 Ms。 Tavenner said the Kansas protests were largely about nostalgia。

巅峰的首席执行官黛安塔文纳(Diane Tavenner)曾是一名教师,她在2003年创办了一系列名为“巅峰公立校园”的公立特许校园,并开发用于讲堂的软件,让学生“开释阴阳同修自己心里的力气”。由此发生的“巅峰学习”项目正逐渐开展成为一个名为“TLP教育”的非营利新安排。塔文纳说,堪萨斯的对立首要是由于保守。

“There’s people who don’t want change。 They like the schools the way they are,” she said。 “The same people who don’t like Summit have been the sort of vocal opposition to change throughout the process。”


Summit chose not to be part of a study after paying the Harvard Center for Education Policy Research to design one in 2016。 Tom Kane, the Harvard professor preparing that assessment, said he was wary of speaking out against Summit bec姜异康最新去向ause many education projects receive funding from Mr。 Zuckerberg and Dr。 Chan’s philanthropic organization, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative。

2016年,巅峰花钱请哈佛大学教育方针研讨中心(Harvard Center for Education Policy Research)规划一项研讨,之后又决议不参加它。准备这项评价的哈佛大学教授汤姆凯恩(Tom Kane)说,他不太甘愿揭露对立巅峰,由于许多教育项目都是由扎克伯格和陈的慈悲安排“陈-扎克伯格举动”(Chan大男人主义 Zuckerberg Initiative)赞助的。

Mr。 Zuckerberg backed Summit in 2014 and assigned five Facebook engineers to develop the software。 In 2015, he wrote that Summit’s program would help “meet the student’s individual needs and interests” and that technology “frees up time for teachers to do what they do best — mentor students。” Since 2016, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative has committed $99.1 million in grants to Summit。


In a statement, Abby Lunardini, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative’s chief communications officer, said, “We take the issues raised very seriously, and Summit has been working with school leaders and parents on the ground to address them。” She added that many schools that used Summit “love and support the program。”

在一份声明中,陈-扎克伯格举动的首席传讯官艾比卢纳尔迪尼(Abby Lunardini)说:“咱们非常重视所提出的问题,巅峰现已与校园领导和当地家长协作来处理这些问题。”她还说,许多运用巅峰的校园“喜爱并支撑这个项目”。

Few places better illustrate the reaction to Summit than the central Kansas towns of Wellington (population 8,000) and McPherson (population 13,000)。 The towns are surrounded by wheat fields and factories。 Residents work in farming, at a nearby oil refinery or at aircraft parts manufacturing plants。


艾米杰克逊和她的女儿梅根、乔丁,以及她们的朋友凯莉福斯伦德(右)。梅根患有癫痫,自从校园开端运用巅峰的课程以来,她每天都会屡次发生。ANNA PETROW FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

In 2015, Kansas announced that it would support education “moon shots” like “personalized learning。” Two years later, it picked school district “astronauts,” including McPherson and Wellington。 When parents received brochures promising “personalized learning,” many were thrilled。 The school districts’ leaders selected Summit。


“We wanted to get every kid on an even playing field,” said Brian Kynaston, a dentist in McPherson and school board member, adding that it helped that Summit was free。

“咱们想让每个孩子都具有公正的竞赛环境,”麦克弗森牙医、校董布赖恩基纳斯顿(Brian Kynaston)说。

He said he liked Summit’s program。 His daughter, Kelcie, 14, said she felt self-directed。 “Everyone is judging it too quickly,” he said。


Mr。 Koenig, the factory supervisor, said: “You want your kids to be innovators。 You want them to be on the cutting edge青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事 of what’s next。”


When this school 罗森year started, children got laptops to use Summit software and curriculums。 In class, they sat at the computers working through subjects from math to English to伤仲永 history。 Teachers told students that their role was now to be a mentor。


Parents of special-needs students noticed problems immediately。 Amy Jackson, a night-shift nurse in Wellington, has a daughter, Megan, 12, who has epilepsy and whose neurologist recommended she limit screen time to 30 minutes a day to reduce seizures。 Since the school started using Summit, Megan has had seizures multiple times a day。

有特殊需求的学来生缘生的家长当即留意到了问题。威灵顿的夜班护理艾米杰克逊(Amy Jackson)的女儿,12岁的梅根(Megan)患有癫痫,神经科医师主张她把每天看屏幕的时刻约束在30分钟以内,以削减癫痫发生。自从校园开端运用巅峰以来,梅根的癫痫每天都会发生好几次。

在威灵顿的城市广场,居民们在商铺橱窗上写下他们对巅峰的对立。ANNA PETROW FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

In September, some students stumbled onto questionable content while working in the Summit platform, which often directs them to click on links to the open web。


In one class covering Paleolithic history, Summit included a link to an article in The Daily Mail, the British newspaper, that showed racy ads with bikini-clad women。 For a list of the Ten Commandments, two parents said their children were directed to a Christian conversion site。

在一节关于旧石器时代前史的课程中,巅峰供给了英国《每日邮报》(Daily Mail)上一篇文章的链接,其间展现了穿戴比基尼的女性的色情广告。两位家长说,为了查十诫,他们的孩子被引向一个基督教皈依网站。

Ms。 Tavenner said building a curriculum from the open internet meant that a Daily Mail article was fair game for lesson plans。 “The Daily Mail is written at a very low reading level,” she said, later adding that it was a bad link to include。 She added that as far as she was aware, Summit’s curriculum did not send students 我和母亲to a Christian conversion site。


Around the country, teachers said they were split on Summit。 Some said it freed them from making lesson plans and grading quizzes so they had more time for individual students。 Others said it left them as bystanders。 Some parents said they worried about their children’s data privacy。


“Summit demands an extraordinary amount of personal information about each student and plans to track them through college and beyond,” said Leonie Haimson, co-chairwoman of the Parent Coalition for Student Privacy, a national organization。

“巅峰要求把握每个学生的很多个人信息,并方案在整个大学甚至大学毕业后追寻他们,”全国安排学生隐私家长联盟(Parent Coalition for student Privacy)的联合主席莱奥妮海姆森(Leonie Haimson)说。

Summit says it complies with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act。

巅峰表明恪守了《儿童在线隐私保护法》(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)。

By winter, many McPherson and Wellington students were fed up。 While Summit’s program asks schools to commit to having students青蒿素,芙蓉楼送辛渐-向云而生,尽情向前,创业生长故事 meet weekly in person with teachers for at least 10 minutes, some children said the sessions lasted around two minutes or did not happen。


Myriland French, 16, a student at Wellington’s high school, said she had developed eye strain and missed talking to teachers and students in class。 “Everyone is more stressed now,” she said。

威灵顿高中16岁的学生米丽兰弗兰奇(Myriland French)说,她眼睛疲惫,并且思念和教师同学们在讲堂上攀谈的日子。“现在所有人的压力都更大了,”她说。

16岁的米丽兰弗兰奇说:“现在所有人的压力都更大了。”她说,运用巅峰的课程后,她的眼睛很疲惫,并且思念上课时和教师同学们沟通的日子。ANNA PETROW FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

Collin Winter, the eighth grader in McPherson, said he had joined the January class walkout with about 50 other students。 “I was scared a little bit,” he said of participating。 “But I still felt good to be doing something。”

麦克弗森县八年级的科林温特(Collin Winter)说,他和约50名其他学生一道参加了1月份的罢课活动。“我其时有点惧怕,”他说起参加状况时说。“但仍然觉得能做点什么挺好。”

One recent evening in Wellington, a dozen parents and students held an organizing meeting in the back of a machine workshop owned by Tom Henning, a local parent。 Chris Smalley, a machinist with two children, ages 13 and 16, attended。 Mr。 Smalley had put up bigger and bigger yard signs in front of his house, even though he knew Mr。 Zuckerberg was unlikely to drive by and see them。 They were red, with a slash across the word “Su足mmit。”

近来在威灵顿的一个晚上,12名家长和学生在当地家长汤姆亨宁(Tom Henning)的机修行里屋召开了安排会议。有13岁和16岁两个孩子的机械师克里斯斯莫利(Chris Smalley)参加了会议。斯莫利此前在家门前打出了越来越大的院子标语,虽然他知道扎克伯格不大可能会开车通过看到它们。标牌是赤色的,“巅峰”一词中心划了道斜线。

“It sounded great, what they sold us,” Mr。 Smalley said。 “It was the worst lemon 补办身份证要多久car that we’ve ever bought。”


Deanna Garver, a church secretary whose sons are in second and eighth grades, had also made a yard sign。 It read: “Don’t Plummet With Summit。”

教会秘书迪安娜加尔弗(Deanna Garver)的两个儿子分别上二年级和八年级,她也树了个院子标语。上面写着:“别跟着巅峰跌疯了”。

After the fall semester last year, about a dozen parents in Wellington pulled their children out of public school, said Kevin Dodds, a city councilman。 In McPherson, Mr。 Koenig and his wife, Meggan, enrolled their two children in a Catholic school, using money saved for a kitchen remodel and vacation。

据市议会议员凯文道兹(Kevin Dodds)称,上一年秋季学期后,威灵顿有十几名家长让孩子退出了公立校园。在麦克弗森,科尼格和妻子梅根(Meggan)用为创新厨房和休假攒的钱让孩子们去一间天主教校园就读。

“We’re not Catholic,” Mrs。 Koenig said。 “But we just felt like it would be a lot easier to have a discussion over dinner about something that they might have heard in a religion class than Summit。”


Nearly 40 more families plan on taking theirgg240 children out of public school by this summer, Mr。 Dodds said。


“We’re out in the middle of nowhere,” he said。 “So we’re the guinea pigs。”


作者:Nellie Bowles

Natasha Singer对本文有报导奉献。


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